Name: 
 

Module 2 Sample Quiz



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The scientific method is:
a.
a method used in laboratories in the “hard” sciences, not the social sciences.
b.
so complex and time consuming that it is rarely used any more.
c.
the application of critical thinking and tools, such as observation and statistical analysis.
d.
used when reputable scientists use their intuition to form an opinion about a problem.
 

 2. 

You find yourself attracted to a person very different from yourself. Your best friend says, “Opposites attract.” What is your friend using to come to this conclusion?
a.
common sense
b.
the scientific method
c.
statistical analysis
d.
confirmation bias
 

 3. 

The tendency to search for information that confirms a preconception is called:
a.
participant bias.
b.
prejudice.
c.
confirmation bias.
d.
replication.
 

 4. 

Participant bias occurs:
a.
in every experiment because everyone has a bias.
b.
when participants decide to disrupt the experiment due to a dislike of the experimenter.
c.
when participants respond differently because they know they are being observed.
d.
when you only examine a certain sample group instead of investigating everyone in a population.
 

 5. 

In a naturalistic observation study, the researchers:
a.
bring participants into a lab situation to get the most natural observations.
b.
observe and record behaviors in naturally occurring situations.
c.
observe only one subject, testing that subject in their natural environment with surveys and other psychological instruments.
d.
survey participants, asking them to respond naturally as answers occur to them.
 

 6. 

Which of the following is the most likely reason a researcher might choose the case study research method?
a.
Case studies are less prone to participant and confirmation bias.
b.
A case study may be the only ethically possible study to perform.
c.
Studying one individual yields more reliable and valid data than studying larger groups.
d.
Experiments need to focus on one or a small group of people in order to control confounding variables.
 

 7. 

A correlational study is:
a.
a cause-and-effect study using control and experimental groups.
b.
a research project designed to discover the degree to which two variables are related to each another.
c.
a research technique that involves studying one group of people over a long amount of time.
d.
a survey study using a sample from a large population.
 

 8. 

Which statement describes a negative correlation?
a.
An INCREASE in one variable is associated with an INCREASE in another variable.
b.
An INCREASE in one variable is associated with a DECREASE in another variable.
c.
A DECREASE in one variable is associated with an INCREASE in another variable.
d.
A DECREASE in one variable is associated with a DECREASE in another variable.
 

 9. 

Correlational studies differ from experiments in that correlational studies:
a.
don't prove cause and effect relationships exist as experiments do.
b.
have a larger sample size than experiments.
c.
use random assignment and experiments do not.
d.
allow researchers to manipulate variables while experiments do not.
 

 10. 

In a research study, the term “population” refers to:
a.
all of the researchers in a given field of study.
b.
the group of participant volunteers that shows up on the day of the experiment.
c.
the group of people the researcher draws his sample from.
d.
the specific group of participants the researcher chooses to work with.
 

 11. 

To assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Susan sent a questionnaire to every 15th person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Susan employed the technique of:
a.
correlation.
b.
random assignment.
c.
random sampling.
d.
replication.
 

 12. 

Which research method is used to study one group of people over years or decades?
a.
longitudinal study
b.
correlational study
c.
naturalistic observation
d.
case study
 

 13. 

Dr. Hanna gathers a group of participants in order to study how attitude toward religion changes over the life span. Dr. Hanna interviews three different groups of participants: The first group is 15-25 years old, the second is 26-35 years old, and the third is 35-50 years old. Which research method is Dr. Hanna using?
a.
longitudinal study
b.
correlational study
c.
cross-sectional study
d.
case study
 

 14. 

In an experiment, the researcher:
a.
manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on another factor.
b.
manipulates the environment of nonhuman animals to answer a specific question (humans can't be used in experiments for ethical reasons).
c.
measures two factors about one individual to see if they are correlated.
d.
observes the participants in their natural environment without interfering with them in any way.
 

 15. 

An operational definition is:
a.
a definition of how the sample group was chosen.
b.
a set of statements outlining exactly how a researcher came up with a specific hypothesis.
c.
a specification of the exact procedures used to measure a variable.
d.
the criteria researchers use when judging one another's research for publication.
 

 16. 

The difference between the experimental group and the control group is defined by the presence of the:
a.
confounding variable.
b.
dependent variable.
c.
independent variable.
d.
sample group.
 

 17. 

A researcher using random assignment:
a.
assigns participants to the experimental and control groups by chance.
b.
gives half the sample the dependent variable and doesn't give anything to the other half.
c.
places participants in the sample group or the population group randomly.
d.
puts half the group in the dependent variable group and half in the independent variable group in a random way.
 

 18. 

The results of an experiment are called “statistically significant” when:
a.
the placebo effect causes the change in the dependent variable.
b.
the researcher judges that the independent variable probably affects the dependent variable.
c.
the results of the experiment are considered important for a large cross section of the population.
d.
there is no more than a 5% chance that the difference is due to random factors.
 

 19. 

In a study of the effects of alcohol consumption, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted alcoholic. This nonalcoholic drink was a:
a.
dependent variable.
b.
placebo.
c.
random sample.
d.
replication.
 

 20. 

The four basic principles used to judge the ethics of research involving human participants are:
a.
experimental group, control group, hypothesis, and replication.
b.
independent variable, dependent variable, placebo, and double-blind.
c.
informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, and debriefing.
d.
scientific validity, expertise of the researcher, cost, and time involved.
 

 21. 

In a 1984 study (Cole & Miller) researchers checked every animal study published in the journals of the American Psychological Association for reports of animal abuse. What did they find?
a.
Only 10% of the studies reported inappropriate abuse.
b.
An astonishingly high number (48%) reported inappropriate abuse.
c.
Not a single instance of inappropriate abuse was identified.
d.
The study was inconclusive.
 



 
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